Periodontitis is a disease process in which, apart from gingivitis (gum inflammation), the lesions include periodontal ligaments and alveolar bone, causing them to slowly disappear. The consequence is the progressive loss of tooth stabilization, which in the absence of treatment leads to its loss.
The causes of periodontal disease can be divided into localized: parafunctions- clenching and grinding of teeth, insufficient hygiene-deposition of plaque and tartar, as well as abnormal fillings and non-functional prosthetic restorations.
Among the general causes are diabetes, smoking, cancer, hormonal disorders.
Treatment of periodontal disease consists of three phases:
- Pretreatment – Hygiene
- Specific therapy
- Support phase
All of the above steps are required to achieve positive results.
Proper therapy consists of conservative and surgical treatment. Surgical procedures include soft tissue implants such as correction of anatomical abnormalities, covering of exposed roots.
Bone surgical procedures mainly address the elimination of deep localized inflammation and reproductive treatment also with the use of biomaterials and growth factors.
Commonly used supportive therapy is laser bio stimulation and photoactive disinfection. Laser radiation effectively activates cell regeneration. By increasing antibody production, it stimulates the immune system and accelerates healing after surgery. It is used in chronic inflammation of periapical tissues, pulpitis, surgical and dental procedures, gingivitis and mucositis, herpes, neuralgia and paraesthesia.
The maintenance phase performed by the trained Hygienist in accordance with the individual schedule is unavoidable and absolute compliance with the recommendations.